Chandrayaan-2 was the subject of discussion in 2019, the solar mission will be the focus 2020

2019 was the year for () as the country's space agency occupied the spotlight for good and disappointing news.

The year began with the test of India's first anti-satellite weapon ('Mission Shakti') when a Microsat-R ground observation missile, launched by Isro on January 24, was used as a target in space by a missile launched by Defense Research and Development Organization () on March 27. Although the test put India in the elite space club, it also generated criticism for contributing to space debris. In fact, Pot He attacked in India for the A-Sat test, saying that around 250 pieces of debris generated by the disintegration of the satellite represented a danger to the International Space Station. Another thing is that the United States forgot that the amount of space debris generated by the India test was very small in proportion to almost 5,000 space debris contributed by US satellite launches in recent years.

Isro also remained in the news for launching only surveillance satellites in 2019. Never in the past has the agency launched only this type of satellites, destined for security forces, in a year. Isro's focus on surveillance satellites shows that the Modi government strives to boost space surveillance of its borders taking into account hostilities with Pakistan and China.

In mid-2019, Isro's ambitious lunar mission became the topic of conversation in the city after its launch on July 22. During the odyssey of more than 50 days of the lunar module from Earth to the Moon when it crossed a series of obstacles to cover a distance of 3.8 lakh km, Chandrayaan-2 became the topic of conversation of almost all discussions and debates in the country.

September 7 was the day that not only the entire country but also space enthusiasts from around the world remained attached to their televisions to witness the historic moon landing of India in an unknown territory of the Moon. Never has an Indian space mission captured as much attention as Chandrayaan-2 did. However, the hard landing on Moon's south pole not only broke Isro's dream of landing on Moon on the first attempt, but also spread sadness across the country. Prime Minister Narendra Modi comforting a crying Isro president became the image of the day while the country sympathized with the dejected space scientists. However, later, Isro's president K Sivan's claim of a 98% mission success rate provoked criticism from a section of the space science community.

As Vikram could not be spotted on Moon's surface, the country started hoping against the hope that the lander might have survived the hard landing and its systems, despite the freezing temperatures in the south pole region, could revive some day. Even Pot deployed its deep space network antennas and the lunar orbiter to locate the Indian lander. Almost three months after Vikram crashlanded on September 7, Pot declared that a young software engineer from Chennai was able to spot the lander debris by using images of its lunar orbiter.

While Chandrayaan-2 and Israel's Beresheet missions failed to soft land on Moon this year, China was successful in landing its Chang'e 4 lunar craft on the far side (dark side) of Moon. In fact, China plans to follow its Chang'e 4 mission with more robotic craft in coming years to explore both the icy poles of Moon, offering the game-changing prospect of extracting water from the ice deposits and using it to power space vehicles and sustain life. China has also stepped up its human mission programme to Moon in order to set up a Chinese colony there by 2030. The US and Russia, too, have jumped on the moon bandwagon. In fact, Pot is working on its Artemis programme with the help of private space-farers like Elon Musk-promoted Space X and Jeff Bezos-led Blue Origin to send a crew mission to Moon by 2024.

India also does not give up its lunar dream. He has started working on his Chandrayaan-3 program with the focus only on the landing mission. The launch is scheduled for the end of 2020 or 2021. In addition to the lunar mission, India has also aligned interplanetary missions to the Sun, Venus and Mars-2 in the coming years. However, 2020 will witness the Aditya L1 solar mission, which will be the country's first solar mission that will help scientists study the solar corona. The 400kg class satellite, which will carry six scientific loads, will be inserted into a halo orbit around point 1 of Lagrangia (L1), which is 1.5 million kilometers from Earth, so there is a great advantage of See the Sun continuously. Without any eclipse In addition to, 2020 will also witness the first human space flight mission that will take a humanoid into space, and more than a dozen satellite missions.

It seems that Isro has his hands full and next year he will see more action in space.